Road trip: Gettysburg August 16, 2011Posted by Jenny in Civil War, history, travel.
Tags: cyclorama, George Gordon Meade, Gettysburg, Joshua Chamberlain, Lewis Armistead, Robert E. Lee
To listen to these men of the 124th New York, you might think they would have to be about 175 years old. They always speak of their regiment in the first person plural: “We faced the 1st Texas at Devil’s Den,” or “Our colonel and lieutenant colonel were both killed.” It was striking to me how powerfully the history of this place tugs people in the present year back to three days in July 1863.
More men fell in this battle—51,000 killed—than in any battle before or since in North America. It represented General Lee’s determined and desperate attempt to make a significant advance into Union territory. Lee failed and withdrew after three days of fighting that culminated in the lethal Confederate infantry advance known as Pickett’s Charge.
I had been at Gettysburg with my family when I was growing up, but I didn’t remember it well. The main thing I recalled was the cyclorama, and I was happy to see that the cyclorama still exists. I started my exploration with the visitor’s center. I saw a familiar figure seated in front of the door.
As I passed this figure, something happened that also occurred when I first arrived at the other two battlefields I visited, Fort Donelson and Shiloh: tears filled my eyes. What a sentimental person I am! And how hard it is to explain why these places are so important to me.
After viewing a film that explained basic facts about the battle, our group of visitors went upstairs to experience the cyclorama. We stood in the darkened circle and listened to the sounds of artillery and riflefire booming from all directions. The canvas was created in 1884 by Paul Philippoteaux, a Frenchman who had made a specialty of the cyclorama form, the 19th-century equivalent to an IMAX theater. In the foreground stood actual three-dimensional artifacts of the battle. The purplish photo below was taken during the performance (very dark, as no flash was allowed).
Philippoteaux actually painted four versions of the scene, all under contract with American businessmen. The first was exhibited in Chicago, went missing for quite a while, and was rediscovered in 1965 and purchased by a group of North Carolina investors. It is the second version that I saw at Gettysburg sometime in the 60s and again on this trip. It was removed for restoration work in 2005 (quite a task, as the thing weighs several tons) and returned to the new visitor’s center in 2008. The third version is known to have been destroyed, and the status of the fourth is unknown.
I next spent quite a long time going through the museum, which covers the whole Civil War in chronological sequence: quite ambitious, but surprisingly successful.
Then it was time to visit the battlefield. I did not go through the main auto tour sites in the sequence shown in the brochure; I zigged and zagged according to whim. I went across Washington Street from the visitor’s center and confronted the extremely large Pennsylvania Memorial. The overcast sky seemed brooding to me and appropriate in mood.
Soon I noticed an encampment of reenactors nearby. I went around taking pictures and talking to the members of the 124th New York. They explained that they come every year the first weekend in August. Their regiment is known as the “Orange Blossoms,” since many of them came from Orange County, NY. Some young fellows attached to the regiment were playing a primitive version of baseball with a large red ball. I understand there is a lot of controversy about the origin of the game, so I won’t get into a discussion about Abner Doubleday and Cooperstown.
The fellow below next to the campfire spent a long time with me explaining the sequence of the 124th’s involvement in the battle. They were situated on a low ridge adjacent to Little Round Top on July 2 and suffered 40% casualties in their engagement with the 1st Texas and a Georgia regiment that came behind the Texans.
I appreciated his time and his dedication to the subject.
I drove on through this peculiar landscape with all kinds of monuments residing among the fields and the woods. Many different concepts of the Civil War soldier or of honoring the dead exist in close proximity to each other. The only thing that all have in common is that they are all more or less representational—no “crazy modern abstract” sculptures.
General Meade, appointed by Lincoln just a week earlier as commander of the Army of the Potomac, looks suitably large and impressive. He performed well at Gettysburg but came under criticism for failing to pursue Lee aggressively after the battle. In 1864 and 1865, his fate was to report to Ulysses S. Grant, and he consequently had little opportunity to exercise leadership.
Sometimes things seemed incongruously juxtaposed, as if each were frozen at a different moment without a connection between them.
This monument offered an important word.
I noticed that one monument in this part of the battlefield had small Confederate flags in front of it, while the other ones around it were all devoted to Union forces. The words seemed obliterated, but a knowledgeable person explained to me that this was a monument to General Lewis A. Armistead, who on July 3 led five Virginia regiments across the open fields into the Angle and across Federal lines, experiencing severe losses. Armistead was seriously wounded, and he died two days later. His men were the only ones to penetrate the Federal center.
I next visited the Soldier’s National Cemetery.
Like many old cemeteries, this one featured some beautiful large trees. Very appropriately, a big buckeye leaned over a monument to Ohio artillerymen.
I spotted an absolutely gigantic gingko.
Fragments of verse were posted on signs around the cemetery. It was not poetry of deep intellectual value—just some simple rhymes to convey a sense of loss.
This pair of figures had interesting stains on their faces and bodies. The one on the left might be Peace or Justice or Honor—who knows—and I have no idea what the right one represents. Since he has what looks like a gear at his feet, maybe he is Industry.They make a rather odd couple.
Since I now reside in North Carolina, I need to include an image of the main NC memorial.
And so I continued through the parts of the battlefield. I made the short climb up to the summit of Big Round Top, connected by a ridge to Little Round Top, where Colonel Joshua Chamberlain and the 20th Maine made their famous defense of the Federal position and charged down the hillside.
Then it was on to beautiful Frostburg, Maryland. I would be doing some highpointing the next day.
To see all of the posts about my August 2011 road trip, type road trip: (with the colon after “trip”) in the search box at right and scroll down.